Posted in Uncategorized

Technology and children, a study Parents need to know about 

Technology invades whatever context you or trying to create. We should run technology instead of letting technology run us. These things really take over if we allow them to.

There was a technology, baby Einstein, that claimed to develop the babies language in their brain faster if you were to show the baby these videos. The study showed that it was just the opposite because relationships are what stimulate growth and learning. If you want to use technology that is fine, but if you replace relationships  with technology then you were going to get the opposite of what you want.  We have to actually be present and not polluted with technology.

Studies from the university of Washington by Andy M. & Patricia K. Here is a snipet: 

When and how do babies become “language-bound” listeners?

In her 2011 TED talk, “The Linguistic Genius of Babies,” Dr. Kuhl discusses how babies under 8 months of age from different cultures can detect sounds in any language from around the world, but adults cannot do this. 6   So when exactly do babies go from being “citizens of the world”, as Kuhl puts it, to becoming “language-bound” listeners, specifically focused on the language of their culture?”

Between 8-10 months of age, when babies are trying to master the sounds used in their native language, they enter a critical period for sound development.1  Kuhl explains that in one set of experiments, she compared a group of babies in America learning to differentiate the sounds “/Ra/” and “/La/,” with a group of babies in Japan.  Between 6-8 months, the babies in both cultures recognized these sounds with the same frequency.  However, by 10-12 months, after multiple training sessions, the babies in Seattle, Washington, were much better at detecting the “/Ra/-/La/” shift than were the Japanese babies.

Kuhl explains these results by suggesting that babies “take statistics” on how frequently they hear sounds in their native and non-native languages.  Because “/Ra/” and “/La/” occur more frequently in the English language, the American babies recognized these sounds far more frequently in their native language than the Japanese babies.  Kuhl believes that the results in this study indicate a shift in brain development, during which babies from each culture are preparing for their own languages and becoming “language-bound” listeners.

In what ways are nurturing interactions with caregivers more valuable to babies’ early language development than interfacing with technology? 

If parents, caretakers, and other children can help mold babies’ language development simply by talking to them, it is tempting to ask whether young babies can learn language by listening to the radio, watching television, or playing on their parents’ mobile devices. I mean, what could be more engaging than the brightly-colored screens of the latest and greatest smart phones, iPads, iPods, and computers? They’re perfect for entertaining babies.  In fact, some babies and toddlers can operate their parents’ devices before even having learned how to talk.

However, based on her research, Kuhl states that young babies cannot learn language from television and it is necessary for babies to have lots of face-to-face interaction to learn how to talk.1  In one interesting study, Kuhl’s team exposed 9 month old American babies to Mandarin in various forms–in person interactions with native Mandarin speakers vs. audiovisual or audio recordings of these speakers–and then looked at the impact of this exposure on the babies’ ability to make Mandarin phonetic contrasts (not found in English) at 10-12 months of age. Strikingly, twelve laboratory visits featuring in person interactions with the native Mandarin speakers were sufficient to teach the American babies how to distinguish the Mandarin sounds as well as Taiwanese babies of the same age. However, the same number of lab visits featuring the audiovisual or audio recordings made no impact. American babies exposed to Mandarin through these technologies performed the same as a control group of American babies exposed to native English speakers during their lab visits.

TV-audio-live person comparison

This diagram depicts the results of a Kuhl study on American infants exposed to Mandarin in various forms–in person interactions with native speakers versus television or audio recordings of these speakers. As the top blue triangle shows, the American infants exposed in person to native Mandarin speakers performed just as well on a Mandarin phoneme distinction task as age-matched Taiwanese counterparts. However, those American infants exposed to television or audio recordings of the Mandarin speakers performed the same as a control group of American babies exposed to native English speakers during their lab visits. Diagram displayed in Kuhl’s TED TAlk 6, provided courtesy of Dr. Patricia Kuhl’s Lab at the University of Washington.

Kuhl believes that this is primarily because a baby’s interactions with others engages the social brain, a critical element for helping children learn to communicate in their native and non-native languages. 6  In other words, learning language is not simply a technical skill that can be learned by listening to a recording or watching a show on a screen.  Instead, it is a special gift that is handed down from one generation to the next.

Language is learned through talking, singing, storytelling, reading, and many other nurturing experiences shared between caretaker and child.  Babies are naturally curious; they watch every movement and listen to every sound they hear around them.  When parents talk, babies look up and watch their mouth movements with intense wonder.  Parents respond in turn, speaking in “motherese,” a special variant of language designed to bathe babies in the sound patterns and speech sounds of their native language. Motherese helps babies hear the “edges” of sound, the very thing that is difficult for babies who exhibit symptoms of dyslexia and auditory processing issues later on.

Over time, by listening to and engaging with the speakers around them, babies build sound maps which set the stage for them to be able to say words and learn to read later on.  In fact, based on years of research, Kuhl has discovered that babies’ abilities to discriminate phonemes at 7 months-old is a predictor of future reading skills for that child at age 5.7

I believe that educating families about brain development, nurturing interactions, and the benefits and limits of technology is absolutely critical to helping families focus on what is most important in developing their children’s communication skills.  I also believe that Kuhl’s work is invaluable in this regard.  Not only has it focused my attention on how babies form foundations for language, but it has illuminated my understanding of how caretaker-child interactions help set the stage for babies to become language-bound learners.

Sources

(1) Kuhl, P. (April 3, 2012.) Talk on “Babies’ Language Skills.” Mind, Brain, and Behavior Annual Distinguished Lecture Series, Harvard University.

(2) Kuhl, P. (2000). “A New View of Language Acquisition.” This paper was presented at the National Academy of Sciences colloquium “Auditory Neuroscience: Development, Transduction, and Integration,” held May 19–21, 2000, at the Arnold and Mabel Beckman Center in Irvine, CA. Published by the National Academy of Sciences.

(3) Bock, P. (2005.)  “The Baby Brain.  Infant Science: How do Babies Learn to Talk?” Pacific Northwest: The Seattle Times Magazine.

(4) Siegel, D., Bryson, T. (2011.)  The Whole-Brain Child: 12 Revolutionary Strategies to Nurture Your Child’s Developing Mind. New York, NY:  Delacorte Press, a division of Random House, Inc.

(5) Center on the Developing Child at Harvard University. “Experiences Build Brain Architecture” and “Serve and Return Interaction Shapes Brain Circuitry” videos, two parts in the three-part series, “Three Core Concepts in Early Development.” http://developingchild.harvard.edu/resources/multimedia/videos

(6) Kuhl, P.  (February 18, 2011.) “The Linguistic Genius of Babies,” video talk on TED.com, a TEDxRainier event. www.ted.com/talks/patricia_kuhl_the_linguistic_genius_of_babies.html

(7) Lerer, J. (2012.) “Professor Discusses Babies’ Language Skills.”  The Harvard Crimson.


Want to read full article: http://eibalance.com/2013/05/03/kuhl-constructs-how-babies-form-foundations-for-language/

Author:

Mother, Pediatric Nurse and a Trail Blazer for Positive Change.

Leave a Reply

Fill in your details below or click an icon to log in:

WordPress.com Logo

You are commenting using your WordPress.com account. Log Out / Change )

Twitter picture

You are commenting using your Twitter account. Log Out / Change )

Facebook photo

You are commenting using your Facebook account. Log Out / Change )

Google+ photo

You are commenting using your Google+ account. Log Out / Change )

Connecting to %s